It was a part of Virat Nagar (now Bairat) in 1500 BC - a Matysa territory also encompassing Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli. The city was founded by Maharaja Alaghraj in 1049. The founders of Alwar were distant relatives of the Kachhwaha dynasty of Amber. Because of its strategic location, south of Delhi it was raided by the Mughal armies a number of times, finally to conquer it and grant it to Sawai jai Singh of Jaipur by Aurangzeb. Later however the emperor Aurangzeb took it back for its strategic virtues.

The Jats of Bharatpur then took control and were evicted by the descendants of the Kachhwaha prince under the leadership of a Naruka chieftain Pratap Singh. It is in the year 1803 that the chieftain was rewarded with a title of Maharaja by the Britishers for his support in a battle against the invading Marathas. Today, Alwar is one of the satellite towns of Delhi. It has a rich natural heritage with picturesque valley thickly wooded in parts confining the Sariska Tiger Reserve within which in the past were the hunting grounds of the Maharajas.