The 3rd largest city in Tamil Nadu, Madurai is also one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world. The place has been mentioned by many such as Kautilya and Megasthenes. The city has been ruled by both the Pandya and the Chola dynasties. The city houses a number of important and magnificent temples that it is built around. Geographically the city of Madurai lies on the fertile plains near the river Vaigai which divides the city in two parts. The land is thus mainly used for agriculture and the major supplier for paddy crops such as rice in India.